Oil and gas upstream
Oil and gas upstream
In fact, as of 1 January 2016, the proven remaining recoverable oil and condensate reserves of JSC NC “KazMunayGas” (including participation shares) amounted to 801.2 mn tons. Oil reserves have increased from the approved Development Strategy of JSC NC “KazMunayGas”, mainly due to re-estimation of reserves of the fields under development and supplementary exploration of KMG’s fields.
In recent years, including through the use of entegration of exploration methods and new technologies of seismic exploration and geomodelling, the following onshore and offshore deposits were discovered: Rozhkovskaya, Urikhtau, Southeast Tassym, Assanketken, Zhambyl, Rakushechnoe Offshore, Khazar, Auezov, Uaz, Kondybai, Southeast Novobogatinskoye, and a number of fields were discovered in the East of the country (South Torgai, Alakol basin).
Based on the results of comprehensive research on 15 sedimentary basins of Kazakhstan, the Company has managed to get quantitative evaluation of the estimated hydrocarbon resources and identify the most promising blocks and areas for further research.
In conducting research for geological study of complex objects and carrying out seismic exploration, the Company applies new complex techniques such as high-resolution seismic techniques (HRS), high-density, wide azimuth and multi-component 3D shooting schemes, the use of special techniques of 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for a more detailed study of the lithologic structure of the geological section, high-precision aeromagnetic surveying.
In the processing of data, modern technologies on time and depth processing techniques, multifocusing, common-reflection surface (CRS), processing technology for duplex waves are applied. Combination of other geophysical methods such as gravimetric, magnetic, electrical prospecting and geochemical surveying is successfully applied.
For instance, in the area of Kozhasai field in order to further study the structure of the pay zone of the pre-salt carbonate strata, the technology of special processing of 3D seismic data using the “diffraction multifocusing” was successfully applied. According to the results of work, optimization of further field development and placement of directional and horizontal wells taking into account the strike of the forecasted fractured zones is carried out.
Based on the results, the methodology has been recommended for application on the Imashevskoye field materials, and the plan are to use it in the Amangeldy group of fields.
The applied methods increase the efficiency of exploration works in other fields of similar geological complexity.
The company plans to achieve an increase in reserves due to additional exploration of mineral resources at greater depths (horizons in the sub-salt complex of the Caspian basin, associated with the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk uplift zone with cutoff parts, large sites in the prospective Devonian-Tournaisian part of the section) by increasing the efficiency and scope of application of the new exploration technologies offshore and onshore. Facilitating development and attraction of new and innovative areas and technologies in exploration is caused by the exploration of the bodies, more complex and deep-seated for study, which requires addressing issues such as the transmission distance, improvement of seismic sparsity, increasing the accuracy of velocity analysis, prediction of reservoir properties and parameters, material composition, identification of fractured zones.
In 2013, an international project for regional geological and geophysical studies within the Caspian depression, named “Eurasia”, was initiated, the main objectives of which are study of the deep geological structure of the Caspian region in order to detect new and large deposits of hydrocarbons and to establish consistency of their distribution at great depths, evaluation of potential hydrocarbon resources of the Caspian basin region.
It is also planned to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the study and refinement of the prospective but understudied Lower Paleozoic deposits within the Shu-Sarysu sedimentary basin. It is contemplated to drill a deep well to confirm the gas-bearing capacity of the lower levels (Lower Devonian - pre-Devonian complex) of the Moinkumskaya prospective gas-bearing depression (Amangeldy group of deposits) at the depths of up to 5 km. According to the results of the seismic studies, new prospects and deposits in the KSCS exploration areas and onshore were identified. Together with its investors, KMG is starting exploration on the new projects: Kansu, Orken, Ustyurt, Issatai, Abai.
Besides, exploration works in accordance with the Development Plan of JSC NC “KazMunayGas” are continued.
The company has developed and is implementing the medium-term Action Plan to increase its hydrocarbon potential and achieve the following goals:
- Development of competences and technologies of deep drilling in the course of implementation of the projects in the Caspian Sea and coastal areas;
- Carrying out research and case studies for identification and assessment of hydrocarbon resources in the prospect onshore and offshore;
- participation in creation of a corporate data bank on the supervised projects of JSC NC “KazMunayGas” (CDB);
- monitoring of oil and gas projects in terms of exploration, evaluation, development and technology of development of hydrocarbon deposits is carried out;
- formation and development of the own center for collection, processing and interpretation of geological and geophysical, field data;
- Growth in the oil recovery factor (ORF);
- Increased labour efficiency;
- Increase in the Company’s hydrocarbon reserves;
- Reduction in the base production decline rates in mature fields and increase in hydrocarbons production in the Company as a whole;
- Reduction in the unit cost of oil production;
- Increased environmental friendliness of the upstream sector.
In order to further develop the research capacity and develop competencies to solve topical issues of exploration and production in the fields of KMG, in 2014, “KazMunaiGas “Production and Drilling Technology Research and Development Institute” (KMG PDT RDI) was established.
The combined efforts of specialists from KMG PDT RDI and its subsidiaries are aimed to carry out research and development on the study of the prospects, monitoring of exploration projects, field development, improvement in the oil extraction processes to enhance oil recovery and ensure growth of the reserves and the oil recovery factor for KMG’s fields taking into account the economic efficiency of works.
It is planned that KMG PDT RDI will become a center of competence on the issues of oil and gas, and will also form a supervising system covering all stages of detailed control over field development, which will render it possible to systematize information on the lifecycles of the field and ensure an increase in the efficiency of KMG’s other oil and gas fields under development.
в и коэффициента извлечения нефти на месторождениях КМГ с учетом экономической эффективности проводимых работ.
Subsidiaries of JSC National Company “KazMunayGas” transported about 61 million tons by major pipelines and 7 million tons by sea transport in 2015.
Oil transportation by major pipelines is performed by the subsidiary under the system of KazTransOil JSC (total length 5.4 thousand km). Oil sea transportation is carried out by the subsidiary NMSK Kazmortransflot LLP, which possesses 6 carriers with the total deadweight of 12,000 – 13,000 tons on the Caspian Sea and 2 carriers of “Aframax” type on the Black Sea.
For the moment, the main operative export routes of raw hydrocarbons in the Republic of Kazakhstan are as follows:
- Atyrau-Samara pipeline
- Caspian Pipeline Consortium;
- Atassu-Alashankou pipeline;
- Aktau sea terminal.
The largest amount of Kazakhstan oil in 2015 was transported by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium – 38 million tons and by the Atyrau-Samara pipeline – 15.7 million tons. 11.8 million tons were transported in China direction.
Gas transportation and marketing
The total length of Kazakhstan's gas transportation system is more than 30 thousand kilometers of gas distribution networks, more than 15 thousand kilometers of main gas pipelines, 56 compressor stations with 316 gas compressor units, 3 underground gas storage tanks. Commercial gas is delivered to over 7 million customers within the country. Based on the principles of multi-vector hydrocarbon supplies to domestic and foreign markets, Kazakhstan seeks to develop all economically profitable routes for transit and export deliveries of commercial gas. At the same time, it is important to maintain a coherent energy policy with certain countries as transit and export routes pass through their territories. Gas transmission infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of the following pipelines:
- “Central Asia Center” MP with the capacity of 60,2 bn. m3/year, with the length of 3962 km (operator “Intergas Central Asia” JSC);
- “Bukhara-Ural” MP - capacity of 8,0 bn. m3/year, the length of 1 576 km (operator -“Intergas Central Asia” JSC);
- “Orenburg – Novopskov” MP – carrying capacity of 14.6 bn. m3/year, the length of 382 km (operator “Intergas Central Asia” JSC);
- “Kazakhstan-China” MP (А and В lines) – capacity of 30,0 bn. m3/year, length of 3 909 km (operator “Asian gas pipeline” LLP);
- “Zhanaozen-Aktau” MP – carrying capacity of 2,8 bn. m3/year, length of 432 km (operator “KTG-Aimak” JSC);
- “Beineu-Bozoi-Shymkent” MP – 2,5 bn. m3/year, length of 1 454 km (operator “Intergas Central Asia” JSC, under construction);
- “Bukhara gas-bearing area – Tashkent – Bishkek – Almaty” - 5,8 bn. m3/year, length of 1 597 km (operator “Intergas Central Asia” JSC).
The above-mentioned gas pipelines allow carrying out international transit of Turkmen and Uzbek gas through Kazakhstan in the direction of Russia and China. The volume of international gas transit through the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2014 amounted to 78,6 bn. m3, within this the share of Russian gas amounted to 49,3 bn. m3, Turkmen gas – 25,6 bn. m3, Uzbek gas – 3,7 bn. m3.
Currently, “KazTransGas” JSC (through subsidiaries – “KazTransGas-Aimak” JSC, “KazTransGas-Almaty” JSC) delivers gas to consumers in Almaty city, Akmaty, Atyrau, Aktobe, East Kazakhstan, Zhambyl, West Kazakhstan, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, Mangistau and South Kazakhstan regions.
Processing and marketing of oil
In accordance with the Program for the development of oil and gas sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014, approved by the Government Resolution No 1072 dated 18.10.2010, at all three oil refineries of the Republic of Kazakhstan investment projects of development and modernization are being implemented.
Modernization of plants will allow replacing obsolete and worn-out equipment, improve the quality of petroleum products corresponding to Euro-4 and Euro-5 standards, increase the production of light oil products up to 77% with an increase of refining depth up to 87-90%, reduce harmful effects on the environment. As a result of reconstruction and modernization, the processing capacity of crude oil will amount to 18.5 million tons per year, base products will appear, and diesel fuel will comply with environmental standards of Euro-5 quality.